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Apraksts:

viss par aprūpi.

Darbs:

Aprūpei nepieciešamie pamatjēdzieni – veselība, vide, cilvēks, pašaprūpe. To apdraudošie vai riska faktori.

Aprūpes pamatjēdzieni ir cilvēks; veselība; vide un aprūpe. Tie visu laiku atrodas savstarpējā saistībā. Cilvēks ir persona, kurai nepieciešama citu cilvēku veikta aprūpe, kopšana vai palīdzība.
Cilvēks jeb pacients ir unikāla būtne, pret kuru jāizturas, kā pret personību ar cieņu un iejūtību, jāpalīdz pārvarēt slimību. Medicīnas personālam jāattaisno pacientu uzticība.
Cilvēki ir sistēmas, kuras sastāv no apakšsistēmām.Un tās nodrošina un uztur ķermeņa iekšējo vidi. Cilvēkam ir nepieciešams uzturēt ne tikai fizisko līdzsvaru, bet arī psiholoģisko līdzsvaru. Lai nodrošinātu šo līdzsvaru cilvēkam vispirms ir jānodrošina fizioloģiskās vajadzības-gaiss; barība…Ja netiek nodrošinātas svarīgākās pamatvajadzības, tad dzīvā sistēma sabrūk.
Veselība ir saprotama ar cilvēks stāvokli, kad viņš ir brīvs no slimības un vājuma un bauda pilnīgu fizisko, psihisko un sociālo labklājību.
Veselībai galvenais ir labs gaiss, siltums, gaisma, diēta, tīrība un klusums. Lai veicinātu veselību un sasniegtu labklājību-cilvēkam jāveicina veselīgs dzīvesveids. Veselīgs dzīvesveids nozīmē, kad cilvēks saprot, kad dažādi faktori var ietekmēt viņa veselību. Piemēram -cilvēkam, kurš daudz lieto alkoholu un smēķē, ir jāsaprot, kad šie ieradumi var atstāt sekas uz veselību. Ļoti liels nozīme ir ticība veselībai. Veselību uztur izsargāšanās no slimībām un no kaitīgiem apkārtējās vides faktoriem.
Apkārtējai videi ir liela nozīme cilvēka pilnvērtīgas personības un fiziskai attīstībai, kā arī dzīvības procesu normālai funkcionēšanai un radoša darba veikšanai. Cilvēks funkcionē ciešā savas iekšējās vides-fiziskās; psihiskās un garīgās un apkārtējās vides mijiedarbībā. Cilvēks tiek uzskatīts kā daļa no apkārtējās vides, kurš iedarbojas uz vidi un tā savukārt iedarbojas uz cilvēku. Cilvēks nav bezpalīdzīgs, kurš padodas vides iedarbībai, bet gan pats piedalās savas apkārtējās vides veidošanā.
Cilvēki ir atšķirīgi un tāpēc arī katrs atšķirīgi pielāgojas un reaģē uz patstāvīgi mainīgo apkārtējo vidi, saglabājot savas funkcionēšanas spējas. Kamēr cilvēks atrodas līdzsvarā viņa iekšējā vide ir stabila neskatoties uz ārējās vides izmaiņām. Cilvēki ar lielāku gribasspēku spēj vairāk pielāgoties mainīgiem apkārtējās vides klimatiskajiem apstākļiem. Tāpat arī ekonomiskajiem un politiskajiem apstākļiem, nekā tie cilvēki, kuri ir vājāki.

Cilvēks ir pakļauts vides riska faktoru iedarbībai. Cilvēkiem ir jārūpējas, lai daba netiktu stipri piesārņota ar radioaktīvajām vai citām toksiskām vielām, lai netiktu izmainīti apkārtējie klimatiskie apstākļi, lai pats cilvēks varētu tam pielāgoties neizmainot savu veselību. Arī cilvēku reakcija uz vides faktoriem ir dažāda, jo daži cilvēki ir jūtīgāki par citiem. Tas ir redzams alerģiju gadījumā. Dažos sabiedrības slāņos pastāv nelabvēlīgi sociālie un dzīvesveida apstākļi, varbūt nepiemērots uzturs, varbūt pakļauti riskam savā profesijā, var piekopt kaitīgu dzīvesveidu. Ir liela saistība starp nabadzību un veselību. Nabadzība ir saistīta ar ierobežotu pieeju pārtikai, dzīvokļiem un veselības aizsardzībai, ar dzīvošanu piesārņotos rajonos un ar zemāku izglītības līmeni. Kas ietekmē dzīvesveida izvēli, higiēnas izpratni un veselības pakalpojumu izmantošanu. Šo situāciju var saasināt ekonomikas lejupslīde un bezdarbs.
Veselība un slimība ir viena turpinājuma divi punkti. Dzīves laikā cilvēks var virzīties no viena punkta pie otra. Vienu dienu cilvēks var justies labāk citu sliktāk. Cilvēks visu laiku cīnās un pielāgojās.
Slimojot cilvēkam ir nepieciešama aprūpe. Aprūpe ir palīdzība cilvēkam kad tā ir nepieciešama. Aprūpe attīstās pakāpeniski risinot dažādas cilvēku problēmas un tās mērķis ir radīt pozitīvas izmaiņas cilvēku dzīvē, kuri tiek aprūpēti. Aprūpe ietver radošu pieeju savam darbam, spēju sevi ziedot citu labā un mīlestību pret savu darbu. Aprūpe prasa milzīgu iejūtību, tāpat ilgstošu saskarsmi ar cilvēkiem, kuri tiek ārstēti , kuri cieš un pat mirst.
Aprūpe sevī ietver-slimības profilaksi, tiešu aprūpi slimības laikā un rehabilitāciju. Aprūpes mērķis ir palīdzēt cilvēkiem saglabāt veselību un slimības gadījumā atgriezties iepriekšējā vai jaunā stāvoklī sabiedrībā. Aprūpes kvalitāte ir atkarīga kāds kontakts izveidojas starp medicīnas personālu un pacientu. Jo ne vienmēr cilvēks zina un saprot, kad viņam nepieciešama palīdzība, jo katrs cilvēks ir ar atšķirīgu ticību, ar dažādiem kultūras uzskatiem. Un jāņem vērā arī vecums, piemēram- zīdainis pats nevarēs meklēt nepieciešamo informāciju un veikt nepieciešamo pašaprūpi.
Teorētiķe D. E. Orema uzskatīja, kad vesels cilvēks, ir tāds, kurš spējīgs pats veikt pašaprūpi, un kurš zina, kad viņam būs vajadzīga palīdzība un meklē nepieciešamo informāciju un izmanto tad, kad ir nepieciešams.
Pašaprūpe ir mērķtiecīga darbība un tā sekmē cilvēku funkcionēšanas spējas un attīstību. Ar pašaprūpi cilvēks var nodrošināt savas pamatvajadzības. Bet to var veikt kad ir pietiekami spēka un zināšanu. Bet cilvēkam var izzust līdzsvars starp prasībām un saviem resursiem un tad cilvēkam iestājas pašaprūpes nespēja. Tas nozīmē, kad cilvēks nav spējīgs pats un pats pēc savas iniciatīvas veikt darbības, kuras nepieciešamas dzīvībai, veselībai un labsajūtas uzturēšanai. Un šajā situācijā ir nepieciešama citu cilvēku palīdzība. Līdz ar to, jo mazākas ir pacienta spējas, jo medicīnas personāla darbs aprūpējot viņu ir intensīvāks un otrādi.
Ir trīs pašaprūpes pamatsistēmas -pilnīgi kompensējošā-kompensē pacienta pašaprūpes nespēju veicot pacienta vietā tās darbības, kas dotajā brīdī viņam nepieciešamas, lai izdzīvotu un atveseļotos. Medicīnas personāls atbalsta pacientu gan fiziski, gan morāli.
-daļēji kompensējošā-palīdz veikt tās darbības, ko pacients nespēj nodrošināt, lai sevi aprūpētu šajā situācijā, kad personālam ir jāizvērtē cik lielā mērā pacientam ir pašaprūpes nespēja, ko viņš pats nespēj veikt.Jo viegli var kļūdīties un veikt pacienta vietā to ko viņš spēj pats.
-atbalsta-pielieto tad, kad pacientam ir nepieciešama tikai neliela palīdzība lēmumu pieņemšanā. Un nepieciešams medicīnas personāla atbalsts.
Tās palīdz medicīnas personālam noteikt pacientu pasaprūpes līmeni un izlemt cik intensīvai vajadzētu būt viņu darbībai.
Jēdziens vajadzība ir cieši saistīts ar visiem četriem pamatjēdzieniem. Katram cilvēkam ir savas pamatvajadzības. Cilvēks ir vesels, ja spēj nodrošināt savas vajadzības. Aprūpe palīdz nodrošināt cilvēkam vajadzības un vide ietekmē cilvēka spēju nodrošināt pamatvajadzības. Medicīnas personālam praktiskajā darbībā jābūt spējīgam noteikt pacienta pamatvajadzības saprotoši un prasmīgi palīdzēt nodrošināt pacientam šīs vajadzības. Ideālā variantā cilvēks pats nodrošina savas vajadzības, bez citu palīdzības. Neapmierinātas vajadzības cilvēkam rada problēmas .Veicot aprūpi vienmēr jāatceras, ka katrs cilvēks ir savādāks ar dažādām vajadzībām, interesēm, vēlmēm, u.t.t




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