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Apraksts:

Kukaiņi

Darbs:

Kukaiņi.
Kukaiņi (Insecta) - seškājaini posmkāju dzīvnieki, ar pasaulē vislielako sugu daudzveidību. Ir zināmi vismaz 925000 kukaiņu sugu. Starp tām pazīstamākie ir tauriņi, vaboles, mušas, skudras un bites. Zinātni, kas pēta kukaiņus, sauc par entomoloģiju. Kukaiņu klasi raksturo sekojošas īpašības. Tie ir sauszemes posmkāji, kuru ķermenis sadalīts trijos nodalījumos: galvā, krūtīs un vēderā. Trīs posmotu kāju pāri atrodas krūšu nodalījumā. Pie otrā un trešā krūšu segmenta parasti ir pa pārim spārnu. Kukaiņi ir vienīgie aktīvi lidojošie bezmugurkaulnieku organismi. Elpošana notiek caur trahejām vai arī ar visa ķermeņa ādu. Tiem kukaiņiem, kas elpo ar visu ķermeņa virsmu, un kam ir gāzu caurlaidīga āda, izplatība ir ierobežota ar mitra klimata apstākļiem. Tie ir sastopami pārsvarā augsnē vai pūstošu organismu atliekās. Caur trahejām elpojošie kukaiņi, kam āda ir gāzu necaurlaidīga, var dzīvot arī sausos apstākļos. Šie kukaiņi
ir izplatījušies pa visu zemeslodi, piemērojoties visdažādākajiem apstākļiem. Kukaiņu klasē iekļauj visus ar trahejām elpojošos posmkājus, kam ir 3 pāri kāju. Tos parasti dala primārajos bezspārņos un spārneņos (Pterygota), taču jaunākie bezspārņu bioloģijas un morfoloģijas pētījumu rezultāti rāda, ka šī grupa nav viendabīga.Viena šo primāro bezspārņu kārta - zvīņenes (Thysanura) - ir ļoti radniecīga visiem „īstajiem” spārneņiem (apakšklase kailžokleņi - Insecta-Ectognatha). Parējās kārtas - protūras), lēcastes, divastes - pēc daudzām svarīgām īpašībām ir ļoti specifiskas, un tika izdalītas atsevišķā segžokleņu (Insecta-Entognatha) apakšklasē (1956. gadā, starptautiskajā entomologu kongresā, Monreālā). Beidzamajā laikā segžokleņu apakšklase tiek pārveidota par atsevišķu klasi - Entognatha, kā rezultātā Protura, Collembola un Diplura kārtas formāli pie kukaiņiem (Insecta) nav pieskaitāmas.Kukaiņus iedala 32 kārtās. Latvijā ir konstatētas 28 kārtas un 11300-11500 sugas (iespējams sugu skaits var palielināties virs 19000 sugām). Latvijas teritorijā aizsargājamas ir ap 150 kukaiņu sugu.
Klase Kukaiņi (Insecta)
• apakšklase Bezspārņi (Apterygota)
o Arhegonātu kārta (Archaeognatha)
o Zvīņeņu kārta (Thysanura)
• apakšklaseSpārneņi (Pterygota)
o Senspārņu infraklase (Paleoptera)
 Viendienīšu kārta (Ephemeroptera)
 Spāru kārta (Odonata)
o Jaunspārņu infraklase (Neoptera)
 Strauteņu kārta (Plecoptera)
 Embiju kārta (Embioptera')
 Grilloblatīdu kārta (Notoptera)
 Spīļastu kārta (Dermaptera)
 Dievlūdzēju kārta (Mantodea)
 Prusaku kārta (Blattodea)
 Termītu kārta (Isoptera)
 Nūjinieku kārta (Phasmatodea)
 Mantofazmatīdu kārta (Mantophasmatodea)
 Taisnspārņu kārta (Orthoptera)




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