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Rafaēls (īstais vārds Rafaello Santi 1483 - 1529) ir itāļu gleznotājs un arhitekts. Pirmās iemaņas glezniecībā viņš ir guvis pie sava tēva - gleznotāja Džovanni Santi. Rafaēls dzimis Urbīno pilsētā hercoga galma gleznotāja ģimenē, kas droši vien arī norādīja viņa turpmāko ceļu uz lielo mākslu. Sākumā Rafaēls mācījās..

Darbs:


Rafaēls (īstais vārds Rafaello Santi 1483 - 1529) ir itāļu gleznotājs un arhitekts. Pirmās iemaņas glezniecībā viņš ir guvis pie sava tēva - gleznotāja Džovanni Santi. Rafaēls dzimis Urbīno pilsētā hercoga galma gleznotāja ģimenē, kas droši vien arī norādīja viņa turpmāko ceļu uz lielo mākslu. Sākumā Rafaēls mācījās turpat pie tēva, vēlāk Perudžā pie Perudžīno. Perudžīno darbnīcā Rafaēls pavadīja četrus gadus, cītīgi apgūdams visu, ko Perudžīno varēja viņam iemācīt. Un, kad Rafaēls juta, ka aizgājis tālāk par savu skolotāju un spēj veiksmīgāk īstenot pasūtītāju uzdevumus, varbūt jaunais mākslinieks darināja daudzfigūru kompozīciju "Marijas saderināšana". Šajā pirmajā, lielajā nozīmīgajā darbā atklājās Rafaēla ģenialitāte.
Ieradies Florencē, Rafaēls tāpat ar lielu aizrautību mācījās no tolaik Florencē strādājošajiem renesanses dižmeistariem: Botičelli, Leonardo da Vinči, Mikelandželo u.c. Tieši Florences posmā (1504-1507) izveidojās un nobrieda Rafaēla īpašais talants, neskaitāmos gleznojumos atveidojot
Madonnas tēlu. Savos darbos Rafaēls Madonnu tēlojis kā dabisku, vienkāršu, sirsnīgu sievieti - māti, kas liek domāt, ka Madonnas konkrētie prototipi varētu būt nejauši sastaptas jaunas sievietes no Romas vienkāršo laužu vidus. Šī posma darbus hronoloģiski izkārtojot, var pamanīt gan Leonardo, gan Mikelandželo, gan citu tā laika meistaru ietekmes Rafaēla daiļradē. Un tomēr Rafaēla mākslā šīs ietekmes iegūst pavisam citu nokrāsu. Mākslinieka agrīnie darbi ir liriski līdzsvaroti, lakoniski un pauž dižrenesanses mieru. Tā laika ievērojamākie darbi ir "Madonna Conestabile" un altārglezna "Marijas saderināšana". 1508. gadā pāvests Jūlijs II uzaicināja mākslinieku uz Romu, lai kopā ar citiem māksliniekiem apgleznotu Vatikāna pils pieņemamās zāles. Laikā no 1509. līdz 1517. gadam Rafaēls apgleznoja trīs lielas zāles. Visspožāk Rafaēla monumentālista un dekoratora talants atklājas Parakstu zāles freskās. Sienu puslokos izvietotās kompozīcijas "Disputs", "Atēnu skola", "Parnass", "Gudrība, Pieticība un Spēks" simbolizē četras cilvēka garīgās dzīves jomas - dievbijību, filozofiju, poēziju un tieslietas. Mākslinieks panācis organisku saistību starp kompozīciju un arhitektūras formām. Izcils darbs, ko Rafaēls radīja Sv. Siksta klostera baznīcai ir altārglezna "Siksta madonna"(1519). Šajā darbā ir apvienotas visas tās īpašības, ko mākslinieks bija izstrādājis iepriekšējos sieviešu tēlos.
Slavu Rafaēls iemantojis arī kā portretu mākslinieks, kurš spēja atklāt cilvēka rakstura vissmalkākās nianses - Rafaēla pašportrets, pāvesta Jūlija II portrets, Leona X portrets ar kardināliem un "Baldasāres Kastiljones portrets". Mākslinieku Itālijā pazina arī kā lielisku arhitektu. Rafaēls bijis Romas Sv. Pētera katedrāles galvenais arhitekts, cēlis arī vairākas citas sakrālas celtnes, darinājis daudzus lielu paklāju metus.
Rafaēls aizgāja no šīs pasaules ļoti jauns - 37 gadu vecumā, nepaguvis līdz galam pabeigt vairākus gleznojumus.





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