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Apraksts:

Rūpīgi izstrādāts konspekts 10. klases līmenī.

Darbs:

Filosofija un māksla :
jaunrades iespējas un robežas.
^ Estētika pētī skaisto, mākslu un kritiku un atspoguļo cilvēka tieksmi veidot un pieredzēt bagātu un vērtīgu pasauli. Estētisku pārdzīvojumu mums sniedz kaut vai ziedi, koki un greznas celtnes. Modernā māksla reizēm šķiet gluži neizprotama, jo tajā dīvainā veidā var būt apvienots skaistais un neglītais.
Kas ir estētika?
^ Estētikas vēstures aizsākums meklējams Platona darbos. Viņš uzskatīja, ka mākslas darbi neatveido lietas tādas, kādas tās ir, bet tādas, kādas tās mums parādās. Tātad māksla netiecas pēc patiesības. Līdz ar to māksla nedod zināšanas, bet melo un maldina.
^ Estētika ir filozofijas nozare, kas pētī skaisto, mākslu un kritiku.
^ Skaistais ir vērtība, kuru varam pieredzēt saistībā ar mākslu, taču tiklab arī ar dabu (skaista var būt gan glezna, gan saulriets) .
^ Mākslas filosofija uzskata, ka māksla un skaistais nav viens un tas pats. Māksla ir cilvēka jaunrades darba rezultāts.
^ Kritika noskaidro mākslas vērtību- vai mākslas darbs ir labs vai skaists.
Skaistais un neglītais.
^ Skaistais ir viena no antīko laiku vērtībām (zināšanas, labais, tikumība). Par to kas ir skaists var strīdēties, tas ir atkarīgs no katras kultūras.
^ Par neglīto ir lielāka vienprātība (piem. līķi, gļotas u.c.). Bet tas tomēr arī ir atkarīgs no katras kultūras.
Izpratne par estētisko pieredzi.
^ Kants ir sarakstījis vairākas grāmatas par kritiku (tīrā prāta, praktiskā prāta un spriestspējas kritiku). Šajos darbos Kants izklāsta estētikas jeb skaistuma filozofijas sistēmu
– skaists ir tas, kas tikai ar formu vien, visaptveroši un nepastarpināti pamodina mūsos saviļņojumu, nesavtīgu apmierinājumu.
Forma un saturs.
^ Forma ir svarīgākais faktors estētikā, skaistā pieredzē.
^ Runājot par formu svarīgākie jēdzieni ir harmonija (līnija, konstrukcija, tēls, krāsa, ritms, kustība, radniecību, savienojamību, skaņu) un koherence (nozīme, ka daiļdarba dažādas daļas ir piemērotā sakarībā cita ar citu).
^ Estētisko iedarbību mūsdienās var izraisīt arī nesaskaņa jeb disonance (atspoguļo mūsu sašķelto un strīdīgo laiku īstāk nekā saskaņa).
Māka un māksla.
^ Vārdi ”māka” un ”māksla” cēlušies no vienas saknes (nodarbošanās ar mākslu ir prasījusi pamatīgi vingrināties speciālajā mākā).
^ Māka ir vajadzīga, ja tā ir nepieciešama mākslinieciskā mērķa īstenošanai. Mūsdienu mākslā svarīgākais mākslas darbā ir ietvertā doma, nevis tas, cik daudz mākas prasa tā radīšana.
^ Māksla pašos pirmsākumos nav bijusi skaista, tai ir bijis cits nolūks, nevis patikas radīšana.
Mākslas horizonts.
^ Postomdernisma virziens mākslā radies pēc modernisma. Tas apvieno gan modernas, gan vecākas formas, neraizējoties par stilu sajaukšanos.
^ Horizontos ietilpst fona zināšanas, pieņēmumi, pieredze un uzskati.
Mākslas nāve
^ Modernā māksla ne vienmēr rada dziļus pārdzīvojumus. Dažkārt māksla tiek uzskatīta par kaut ko konceptuālu un intelektuālu.
^ Doma par mākslas nāvi Pārņemta no Hēgeļa, kurš uzskatīja, ka mākslas attīstība noved līdz filozofijai (to veido vispirms māksla, tad reliģija, tad filozofija).
Mākslas jaunā pasaule.
^ Māksla ir viss, ko mākslas sabiedrības loceklis izgatavo, dara vai nosauc par mākslu. Māksla ir mākslinieku un kritiķu veidotas sabiedrības darbības rezultāts. Tieši tas tiek saprasts ar institucionālo mākslas teoriju.
^ Viena no būtiskajām mūsdienu mākslas iezīmēm ir tāda, ka cenšas atbrīvoties no mākslas mākas un skaistuma tradīcijas.
^ Katra joma jāvērtē tās kontekstā.
^ Mākslas darbā vērtību nosaka tas, cik daudz nozīmju darbā iespējams atrast.
Mākslas vēsts.
^ Īstai mākslai vajadzētu vēstīt kaut ko nozīmīgu par cilvēku dzīvi, tai vajadzētu būt audzinošai, uzmundrinošai un pat attīrošai.
^ No mūsdienu mākslas vairs nevajag prasīt dziļumu un vēsti. Tā sākusi meklēt jaunas formas , un saturiskā puse – mākslas vēsts – palikusi otrā plānā.
Jaunās mākslas un mākslu apvāršņa paplašināšanās.
^ Mākslu apvārsnis visu laiku paplašinās.
^ Jaunākie mākslas veidu papildinājumi ir performances, vides māksla un videomāksla.
^ Tagad mākslā skaistais, diženais, harmonija un stils ir zaudējuši savu nozīmi.
Kāda ir mākslas nākotne.
^ Mākslas filosofija un estētika nemitīgi mainās.
^ Mākslas iedaba un nozīme ir atklāta, un tikai nākotnē radīs, kādā virzienā dodamies. Var būt arī atgriešanās pie skaistā, dziļā un saturiskā.




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