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Aizmirsu paroli  
 
 
 

Apraksts:

eseja biologijaa

Darbs:

Kontaktdermatīts


2006



Dermatīts - (dermatitis; gr. derma, dermatos āda) – ādas iekaisums. To var radīt ārēji mehāniski, fizikāli, ķim. un biol. kairinātāji. Dermatīta izcelsmē liela nozīme ir ādas jūtīgumam, kas atkarīgs no dzimuma, vecuma, iedzimtām anat. un fiziol. īpatnībām, kā arī kairinātāja iedarbības vietas. Atkarībā no kaitīgā aģenta koncentrācijas un iedarbības ilguma dermatīts parasti ir akūts (ilgst no dažām dienām līdz dažām ned.), ar apsārtumu, tūsku, pūšļiem, audu atmirumu bojātajā vietā vai horonisks (ilgst mēnešus, pat gadus), saistīts ar ādas sabiezējumu, sacietējumu, raupjumu, lobīšanos, plaisām. Ir nieze un dedzinoša sajūta. Fizikāli fatoru izraisītie dermatīti ir apsaldējums un apdegums, saules dermatīts, radioaktīvo vielu starojuma, elektrības un zibens radītie bojājumi ādā. Dermatītu var radīt arī ķīm. kairinātāji – skābes, sārmi, metālu sāļi, organiski šķīdinātāji, plastmasas, cilvēkiem ar palielinātu ādas jūtību – arī sintētiskie mazgāšanas un tīrīšanas līdzekļi, kosmētikas līdzekļi āriīgi lietoti medikamenti. Biol. kairinātāji var būt augu sula, kukaiņu dzēlumi, dzīvnieku kodumi.
Ārstēšana – pretiekaisuma līdzekļi : vispārēji (kalcija preperāti, C vit.) un lokāli (mitri apliekamie ar 2% borskābes šķīdumu, kaļķa liniments, atvēsinoši krēmi, cinka oksīds u.c.).
Profilakse – ivairīties no saskares ar kairinošajām vielām.Strādājot ar tām, lietojot speciālus aizsarglīdzekļus.

Tiesa, ja kādam ir nopietna alerģija, kas sagādā smagas ciešanas, viņš ar šādiem izteikumiem tik viegli nemētājas. Citi bieži domā, ka alerģija tāds nieks vien ir — nu, pašķaudīs cilvēks brītiņu vai uzmetīsies viņam uz ādas kāda pumpiņa, iedzers zāles, un viss pāries. Kā par nelaimi, arvien vairāk ļaužu ir spiesti izjust alerģiskas parādības uz savas ādas un pārliecināties, ka tik vienkārša tā lieta nav.
Alerģija ir pastiprināta imūnās sistēmas reakcija uz parastām apkārtējā vidē esošām vielām — ziedputekšņiem, pārtikas produktiem, dzīvnieku vilnu, putekļiem, tīrīšanas līdzekļiem utt. Alergēni ir ļoti daudzveidīgi, tāpat arī pastāv dažādi alerģisko reakciju tipi, sākot ar
ādas un gļotādu reakcijām un beidzot ar tādām parādībām kā anafilaktiskais šoks un Kvinkes tūska, kas ir bīstamas dzīvībai.
Attīstītajās valstīs straujš alerģijas slimnieku skaita pieaugums sākās 20. gadsimta otrajā pusē un prognozes nav iepriecinošas. Tiek lēsts, ka 2015. gadā 50% Eiropas iedzīvotāju slimos ar astmu, kas arī ir viena no alerģijas izpausmēm. Alerģijas izplatība vislielākā ir tieši valstīs ar labi attīstītu tautsaimniecību un augstu dzīves līmeni. Precīzi cēloņi tam nav zināmi, taču daudzi mediķi skaidro šo parādību ar pārlieku sterilo vidi, kurā dzīvojam. Ja mātes miesās un pirmajos mēnešos pēc dzimšanas uz bērnu neiedarbojas dabiskie kairinātāji, kas parasti ir visapkārt, tad organisms neiemācās tos pazīt, saistīt, sadalīt un izvadīt.
Ne katru pārtikas produktu nepanesību var saukt par alerģiju. Alerģija ir imunoloģiska reakcija, kas organismā norisinās molekulu līmenī. Piemēram, piena cukura nepanesība nav alerģija, lai gan tā izraisa nepatīkamus simptomus ikreiz, kad tiek dzerts piens — tā rodas tāpēc, ka organisms vairs neražo fermentu laktāzi, kas nepieciešams piena cukura šķelšanai.
Ļoti bieži alerģiju veicinām mēs paši ar savu paviršo attieksmi pret mazgāšanas, tīrīšanas un citiem sadzīves ķīmijas līdzekļiem. Tie izraisa kontaktdermatītus, alerģiskos dermatītus, nātreni u. c. Alerģiskās reakcijas bieži izpaužas ādā un gļotādās. Pamanot pirmās alerģijas pazīmes, jānovērš kontakts ar vielu, kas tās izraisījusi. Vislabāk izvēlēties tādus sadzīves ķīmijas līdzekļus, kurus labi pazīstat un par kuru drošību esat pārliecinājušies. Nekādā gadījumā nedrīkst tos pārdozēt, jāievēro ražotāju sniegtās instrukcijas. Daži eksperti pat uzskata, ka var iztikt ar vēl mazākām devām.
Strādājot ar sadzīves ķīmijas līdzekļiem, vajadzētu lietot gumijas cimdus un par ļaunu nenāktu arī aizsargmaska. Ja līdzekļi izraisa ādas apsārtumu, sausumu, plaisāšanu, niezi, zvīņošanos vai izsitumus, kā arī acu asarošanu, apsārtumu, šķaudīšanu un klepu, konsultējieties ar ārstu. Neliekoties par šādu reakciju ne zinis, var attīstīties nopietnas slimības.


Vienmēr der atcerēties, ka ādas stāvoklis ir atkarīgs no:
• iedzimtības
• kopšanas
Tomēr kopšanai iepretim iedzimtībai ir salīdzinoši maza nozīme.
• ārējās vides ietekmes
Liela ietekme ir saulei un solārijam, vējam, salam, krasām gaisa temperatūras svārstībām.
• dzīvesveida
Nepietiekams miegs, pārslodzes.
• ēšanas paradumiem
Visnevēlamākā ir lielu sāls daudzumu saturošu pārtikas produktu lietošana un liela šķidruma daudzuma uzņemšana pirms iemigšanas, ādu negatīvi ietekmē arī stipra tēja un kafija, smēķēšana un alkoholisko dzērienu lietošana.
• organisma vispārējā veselības stāvokļa
Ādai būtiska ir gremošanas orgānu, aknu un nieru darbība.



Man ir hroniskais dermatīts. Man tas ir jau no pagājušā gada. Šajā gadā apmeklējot ādas ārstu ir manāmi uzlabojumi. Tika izrakstītas daudz zāles (Lorinden C ziede, Betnovate cream, Advantan krēms, ziede, kas tika pagatavota aptieka, sunīšu ziede, Kesetine 20mg tabletes).Es Vēl turpinu ārstēšanos pie ādas ārsta.
Kā man ārstnieciskā vingrošana varētu palīdzēt?
Ar ārstniecisko vingrošanu varu nostiprināt savu organismu.


PIELIKUMS


Skūpsts pret alerģiju
Līga Brūvere, «Rīgas Balss»
Sestdiena, 29. jūlijs (2006)
Jaunā pētījumā atklājies, ka kaislīgs 30 minūtes ilgs skūpsts var palīdzēt atvieglot siena drudža simptomus.
Pētnieki atklāja, ka skūpstīšanās ļauj cietējam atbrīvoties un samazina histamīna izdalīšanos, kas izraisa siena drudzi. Pētnieki kādā Japānas slimnīcā aicināja 24 vīriešus un sievietes, kam ir siena drudzis, 30 minūtes skūpstīties ar saviem partneriem, klausoties maigu mūziku. Eksperiments tika atkārtots arī ar apkampšanos bez skūpstīšanās. Asins paraugos bija redzams, ka pēc skūpstīšanās bija būtiski samazinājies antivielu apjoms, kas cīnās pret alergēniem, savukārt pēc apmīļošanas nekādas izmaiņas nebija vērojamas. Tāpat notika arī pacientiem ar atopisko dermatītu — ādas slimību, kas arī ir saistīta ar alerģijām.




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